Osseointegration is a procedure that entails the formation of a bone adherence in which a new living bone is put directly on the implant surface which has pores without interposing fibrous tissues. The prosthesis is majorly made of titanium layered with calcium phosphate and is used in dental implants and other amputation replacement prosthesis.
Application of Osseointegration
Dental implants are used to replace missing teeth with the goal of improving chewing function, dental appeal and dental health.
Osteointegration is also used in limbs prosthesis where the implant is directly attached to the bone thus avoiding pain, pressure, sweating, scratching and sores on the skin. This gives an improved range of motion with the prosthesis as it avoids socket fittings.
Osseointegration for Amputees
Osseointergration surgery for amputee’s reconstruction is a process of tying up a metal implant to the remaining bone (appendicular skeleton) and then attaching it to a prosthetic limb using an alumina transcutaneous connector via an opening made on the skin. The transcutaneous connector is a device used to transmit electrical pulses through the skin so that the body can relieve pain on its own. This procedure uses titanium as the metal for implant.
The osseointergrated prosthesis is efficient in the healing process as it provides a better mobility and satisfaction to the patient. There is a great improvement in patients who use osseointergrated prosthesis than socket prosthesis. Osseointergration has a mechanical stimulation factor in which the tissues, muscles, joints and skin are anchored to the bone prosthesis that connect to the central nervous system and inflate a high sensory function. This process is known as Osseo perception.
Osseointegration Surgical Technique
There are two processes involved in Osseointegration. These are:
- The first Osseointegration procedure is done by drilling the canal, opening the thread for the implant and then deeply screwing it in the distal ends of the tibia and fibula bone. This acts as a protection against bone friction. The bone implant is then inserted, and the incision is closed. The integration of the bone and implant can take place six months after the first procedure.
- The second procedure is then done after this period. In this procedure there is attachment of braces to the implanted fixture, substituting the braces through the skin, and creating a stoma at the skin-implant by tightly securing soft tissue and removing hair follicles. This prevents any inflammation and infection.
Muscle endings are then stitched to the periosteum (outer skull bone surface) of the distal ends. The subcutaneous fat is then removed to promote union of the bones. Finally, the wound is fully closed.
Ideal Candidate for Osseointegration
Osseointegration is fit for patients who have undergone:
- Total hip or total knee replacement
- Trans humeral amputation where humerus bone and a portion of it are removed from the upper arm
- Trans radial amputation in which portions of radius and ulna bones are removed from the lower arm.
Contraindications for Osseointergration
There are some factors that may limit the patient from undergoing the procedure. The include:
- Individuals of senior ages – above 70 years
- Immunosuppressive medications
- Pregnant women
- Patients receiving chemotherapy
- Peripheral vascular disease
- Individuals that have gone through several x-rays on the limbs
- Skeletal immaturity
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Reconstructive surgery at Kings College Hospital Dubai focuses on the safety and care of every patient in a compassionate environment with state-of-the-art facilities. To book an online or in-person consultation and a detailed evaluation by one of our world class plastic and reconstructive surgeons in Dubai, get in touch using the contact details given, and our patient-care staff will book an appointment for you.
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